Plasma is a state of matter where the gas phase is energized until atomic electrons are no longer associated with any particular atomic nucleus. [citation needed]. The level of ionization is mainly controlled by temperature, where increasing the temperature increases the degree of ionization. However, it is generally not practical or necessary to keep track of all the particles in a plasma. [citation needed], For plasma to exist, ionization is necessary. In 1928, Langmuir gave a name to the form of matter. Because fluid models usually describe the plasma in terms of a single flow at a certain temperature at each spatial location, they can neither capture velocity space structures like beams or double layers, nor resolve wave-particle effects. While the other three states of matter are commonly encountered in daily life, plasma is relatively rare. [citation needed], Based on the relative temperatures of the electrons, ions and neutrals, plasmas are classified as "thermal" or "non-thermal" (also referred to as "cold plasmas"). The abbreviation for red blood cells is RBCs. Many of these features were first studied in the laboratory, and have subsequently been recognized throughout the universe. The other, known as the particle-in-cell (PIC) technique, includes kinetic information by following the trajectories of a large number of individual particles. Matter in which only 1% of the particles are ionized can show characteristics of plasma, yet not be plasma. {\displaystyle \nu _{ei}=\nu _{en}} Therefore, with a weak degree of ionization Plasma may be produced by either heating a gas until it is ionized or by subjecting it to a strong electromagnetic field. In a sense, plasma is like a gas in that it assumes the shape and volume of its container. The degree of ionization, Normally, when blood is filtered in the kidneys, some sugar remains in the fluid that will later become urine. Tokamak plasma in nuclear fusion research, Argon Plasma in the Hawkeye Linearly Magnetized Experiment (HLMX) at the University of Iowa, One of the four fundamental states of matter, Fully vs. partially (weakly) ionized gases. is the limit separating a plasma from being partially or fully ionized. {\displaystyle n_{e}=\langle Z\rangle n_{i}} [16] Lewi Tonks and Harold Mott-Smith, both of whom worked with Irving Langmuir in the 1920s, recall that Langmuir first used the word "plasma" in analogy with blood. Plasma Definition in Chemistry and Physics. ⟨ Plasmas are made up of positively charged ions and unbound electrons. [13], The word plasma comes from Ancient Greek πλάσμα​ 'moldable substance'[1] or 'jelly',[2] and describes the behaviour of the ionized atomic nuclei and the electrons within the surrounding region of the plasma. [58] (See also Filament propagation), The strength and range of the electric force and the good conductivity of plasmas usually ensure that the densities of positive and negative charges in any sizeable region are equal ("quasineutrality"). The page not only provides Urdu meaning of Hypocalcemia but also gives extensive definition in English language. The cardiovascular system moves blood throughout the body, and the lymphatic system moves lymph, which is a clear fluid thats similar to the plasma in blood. Because of the large difference in mass, the electrons come to thermodynamic equilibrium amongst themselves much faster than they come into equilibrium with the ions or neutral atoms. When this condition is valid, electrostatic interactions dominate over the processes of ordinary gas kinetics. {\displaystyle \mathbf {v} } ThoughtCo, Aug. 27, 2020, thoughtco.com/definition-of-plasma-605524. A more general description is the two-fluid plasma,[65] where the ions and electrons are described separately. , the electron-ion collision frequency can equal the electron-neutral collision frequency: High blood sugar usually occurs in diabetes, especially when untreated. {\displaystyle n_{i}} 1 is much greater than the electron-neutral collision frequency In 2013, a group of materials scientists reported that they have successfully generated stable impermeable plasma with no magnetic confinement using only an ultrahigh-pressure blanket of cold gas. This can and does cause extremely complex behaviour, such as the generation of plasma double layers, an object that separates charge over a few tens of Debye lengths. The word was introduced in the 1920s by chemist Irving Langmuir. Plasma is considered one of the four fundamental states of matter, along with solids, liquids, and gases. Blood pressure readings fall into four general categories, ranging from normal to stage 2 high blood pressure (hypertension). [6] The Earth's ionosphere is a plasma and the magnetosphere contains plasma in the Earth's surrounding space environment. This is especially common in weakly ionized technological plasmas, where the ions are often near the ambient temperature. At high powers, the nonlinear part of the index of refraction becomes important and causes a higher index of refraction in the center of the laser beam, where the laser is brighter than at the edges, causing a feedback that focuses the laser even more. Plasma (from Ancient Greek πλάσμα​ 'moldable substance'[1]) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir[2] in the 1920s. When used in combination with a high Hall parameter, a critical value triggers the problematic electrothermal instability which limited these technological developments. Plasma contains proteins that help blood to clot, transport substances through the blood, and perform other functions. Red blood cells are a vital part of the oxygen transport system in the body. , where e Plasma may be categorized as "hot" or "completely ionized" if nearly all the particles are ionized, or "cold" or "incompletely ionized" if a small fraction of molecules is ionized. [citation needed], Most of "technological" (engineered) plasmas are weakly ionized gases. Most artificial plasmas are generated by the application of electric and/or magnetic fields through a gas. [citation needed]. e Red blood cells: The blood cells that carry oxygen. [84] These kinds of weakly ionized gases are also nonthermal "cold" plasmas. {\displaystyle \nu _{ei}} Plasma generated in a laboratory setting and for industrial use can be generally categorized by: Just like the many uses of plasma, there are several means for its generation. [60], Impermeable plasma is a type of thermal plasma which acts like an impermeable solid with respect to gas or cold plasma and can be physically pushed. ⟩ Note the temperature of cold plasma may still be incredibly hot (thousands of degrees Celsius)! These cells are suspended in a liquid matrix known as plasma. ), but on the scale of the Debye length there can be charge imbalance. Astrophysical plasmas are also observed in Accretion disks around stars or compact objects like white dwarfs, neutron stars, or black holes in close binary star systems. {\displaystyle \omega _{\mathrm {ce} }/v_{\mathrm {coll} }>1} = Urdu definition, one of the official languages of Pakistan, a language derived from Hindustani, used by Muslims, and written with Persian-Arabic letters. [5] Based on the temperature and density of the environment that contains a plasma, partially ionized or fully ionized forms of plasma may be produced. [69][Note 3], Because of their sizable temperature and density ranges, plasmas find applications in many fields of research, technology and industry. n is the number density of ions and However, the existence of charged particles causes the plasma to generate, and be affected by, magnetic fields. One donation can save as many as three lives. {\displaystyle \omega _{\mathrm {ce} }} While electric fields in plasmas are usually small due to the high conductivity, the electric field associated with a plasma moving in a magnetic field is given by The charged particles also mean plasma may be shaped or contained by electrical and magnetic fields. The term plasma comes from a Greek word that means jelly or moldable material. Recovery generally takes two to seven days. In magnetized plasmas, a gyrokinetic approach can substantially reduce the computational expense of a fully kinetic simulation. {\displaystyle \alpha ={\frac {n_{i}}{n_{i}+n_{n}}}} Plasma was first identified in a Crookes tube, and so described by Sir William Crookes in 1879 (he called it "radiant matter"). She has taught science courses at the high school, college, and graduate levels. The first scientific description of plasma was made by Sir William Crookes in 1879, in reference to what he called "radiant matter" in a Crookes cathode ray tube. Helmenstine, Anne Marie, Ph.D. (2020, August 27). The first impact of an electron on an atom results in one ion and two electrons. In 2013, The Washington Post unreported a claim that they owned 1% of all the bitcoins in nonexistence chemical element the term. ⟩ Plasma is generally at a much lower pressure than a gas. v It is the intravascular fluid part of extracellular fluid (all body fluid outside cells). Oxygenated blood is carrying more of oxygen to deliver to body tissues while deoxygenated blood is carrying more of carbondioxide to be expelled from body. o It is often the case that the electrons are magnetized while the ions are not. The spontaneous formation of interesting spatial features on a wide range of length scales is one manifestation of plasma complexity. For example, in: industrial and extractive metallurgy,[69][70] surface treatments such as plasma spraying (coating), etching in microelectronics,[71] metal cutting[72] and welding; as well as in everyday vehicle exhaust cleanup and fluorescent/luminescent lamps,[66] fuel ignition, while even playing a part in supersonic combustion engines for aerospace engineering. Biconcave disc which is round and flat, sort of like a shallow bowl. The dust particles acquire high charges and interact with each other. The features are interesting, for example, because they are very sharp, spatially intermittent (the distance between features is much larger than the features themselves), or have a fractal form. Numerical Investigation of a Hall Thruster Plasma, Physics of Plasmas, 9 (9) pp. [14] The nature of this "cathode ray" matter was subsequently identified by British physicist Sir J.J. Thomson in 1897. Those findings may partially explain studies finding that children of obese mothers are more likely to develop disorders that arise from off-kilter immunity. l c Red cells contain hemoglobin and it is the hemoglobin which permits them to transport oxygen (and carbon dioxide). {\displaystyle \mathbf {E} } [44] Within our Solar System, interplanetary space is filled with the plasma expelled via the solar wind, extending from the Sun's surface out to the heliopause. {\displaystyle \nu _{en}} However, plasma isn't as free as gas because its particles are electrically charged. {\displaystyle n_{n}} , where Blood plasma is a yellowish liquid component of blood that holds the blood cells of whole blood in suspension.It is the liquid part of the blood that carries cells and proteins throughout the body. i Magnetized plasmas are anisotropic, meaning that their properties in the direction parallel to the magnetic field are different from those perpendicular to it. What's the Minimum Amount of Bitcoin explained in urdu You Need to pay? ν You encounter it every day but may not recognize it. This blood pressure chart can help you figure out if your blood pressure is at a healthy level or if you'll need to take some steps to improve your numbers. [citation needed] Examples of complexity and complex structures in plasmas include: Striations or string-like structures,[50] also known as Birkeland currents, are seen in many plasmas, like the plasma ball, the aurora,[51] lightning,[52] electric arcs, solar flares,[53] and supernova remnants. One form of matter is plasma. [11], Plasma may be the most abundant form of ordinary matter in the universe,[12] although this hypothesis is currently tentative based on the existence and unknown properties of dark matter. Roy, S., and Pandey, B. {\displaystyle n_{e}=\langle Z\rangle n_{i}} The test for hormonal disorders such as hypo production of testosterone, measured by a blood test. In such a plasma, electric fields play a dominant role. In thermal plasma, the electrons and heavier particles are in thermal equilibrium or at the same temperature. E Someone in the United States needs blood every two seconds. Plasma may be produced by either heating a gas until it is ionized or by subjecting it to a strong electromagnetic field. [35], In astrophysical plasmas, Debye screening prevents electric fields from directly affecting the plasma over large distances, i.e., greater than the Debye length. e [57] One interesting aspect of the filamentation generated plasma is the relatively low ion density due to defocusing effects of the ionized electrons. [54] They are sometimes associated with larger current densities, and the interaction with the magnetic field can form a magnetic rope structure. 4052-60 (2002): "Wrangling flow to quiet cars and aircraft," EurekAlert, plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, Electrically powered spacecraft propulsion, British Association for the Advancement of Science, "Chapter 1: A Short History of Gaseous Electronics", Solar Wind Squeezes Some of Earth's Atmosphere into Space, "Quasi-neutrality - The Plasma Universe theory (Wikipedia-like Encyclopedia)", "Plasma Oscillations— An application of electrostatics and classical mechanics", "Ion Viscous Heating in a Magnetohydrodynamically Unstable Pinch at Over 2 × 10, "The Z Machine: Over two billion degrees! n Z Learn How to Identify Plasma With These Examples, Radiation in Space Gives Clues about the Universe. {\displaystyle \alpha } (where von Engel, A. and Cozens, J.R. (1976) "Flame Plasma" in. [4], Plasma and ionized gases have properties and behaviours unlike those of the other states, and the transition between them is mostly a matter of nomenclature[2] and subject to interpretation. Is it a Liquid, Solid, or Gas? The material undergoes various "regimes" or stages (e.g. ν / Bitcoin explained in urdu is type A decentralized digital currency without a central. l Helmenstine, Anne Marie, Ph.D. "Plasma Definition in Chemistry and Physics." The urinary system, also known as the renal system or urinary tract, consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and the urethra.The purpose of the urinary system is to eliminate waste from the body, regulate blood volume and blood pressure, control levels of electrolytes and metabolites, and regulate blood pH. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/definition-of-plasma-605524. [Note 2] A thermal plasma is in thermal equilibrium, which is to say that the temperature is relatively homogeneous throughout the heavy particles (i.e. This Site contain Translation of Quran in English , Urdu and Arabic Text. Plasma consists of free electrons and ions that aren't associated with atomic nuclei. [citation needed], In a plasma, the electron-ion collision frequency i Natural examples of plasma include lightning the aurora, the ionosphere, St. Elmo's fire, and electrical sparks. Examples are charged particle beams, an electron cloud in a Penning trap and positron plasmas. is the electric field, v [citation needed], With ample current density and ionization, this forms a luminous electric arc (a continuous electric discharge similar to lightning) between the electrodes. ⟨ atoms, molecules and ions) and electrons. The voltage rises to its maximum value in the saturation stage, and thereafter it undergoes fluctuations of the various stages; while the current progressively increases throughout. The stability attained represents a dynamic equilibrium, in which continuous change occurs yet relatively uniform conditions prevail. Listed here are five signs and symptoms of the predatory loan. [citation needed], The potential difference and subsequent electric field pull the bound electrons (negative) toward the anode (positive electrode) while the cathode (negative electrode) pulls the nucleus. Ahadees means Sayings of Holy Prophet Hazarat Muhammad S.A.W. trap meaning in urdu, Once you understand why is a loan damaging could keep borrowers from dropping as a financial obligation trap. n α Research was also conducted in the field of supersonic and hypersonic aerodynamics to study plasma interaction with magnetic fields to eventually achieve passive and even active flow control around vehicles or projectiles, in order to soften and mitigate shock waves, lower thermal transfer and reduce drag. Salt precipitation, immunological technique, and electrophoresis may separate these. The electric field in a plasma double layer is so effective at accelerating ions that electric fields are used in ion drives. It also contains hormones and cells that fight infection. Opposite charges attract each other, often causing plasma to maintain a general shape or flow. Blood, fluid that transports oxygen and nutrients to cells and carries away carbon dioxide and other waste products. n It helps you understand the word Hypocalcemia with comprehensive detail, no other web page in our knowledge can explain Hypocalcemia better than this page. Another way to categorize plasma is as thermal or nonthermal. White blood cells are an important part of the body’s immune system response. [3] It consists of a gas of ions – atoms which have some of their orbital electrons removed – and free electrons. The interior of the Sun is an example of fully ionized plasma,[7] along with the solar corona[8] and stars. These proteins play a number of important roles in the human body, and levels of plasma proteins are sometimes evaluated in a laboratory analysis to gather information about a patient's general health and specific health issues which a patient may be experi… One simple fluid model, magnetohydrodynamics, treats the plasma as a single fluid governed by a combination of Maxwell's equations and the Navier–Stokes equations. Helmenstine, Anne Marie, Ph.D. "Plasma Definition in Chemistry and Physics." ω Blood contains nutrients from the foods you eat and oxygen from the air you breathe. Furthermore, all the distant stars, and much of interstellar space or intergalactic space is also likely filled with plasma, albeit at very low densities. Note that non-thermal, or non-equilibrium plasmas are not as ionized and have lower energy densities, and thus the temperature is not dispersed evenly among the particles, where some heavy ones remain "cold". − {\displaystyle \alpha } Plasma is an electrically neutral medium of unbound positive and negative particles (i.e. Although it is closely related to the gas phase in that it also has no definite form or volume, it differs in a number of ways, including the following: Plasmas are by far the most common phase of ordinary matter in the universe, both by mass and by volume. [17][18] Mott-Smith recalls, in particular, that the transport of electrons from thermionic filaments reminded Langmuir of "the way blood plasma carries red and white corpuscles and germs."[19]. Diabetes is a fatal disease, in which patient’s glucose level increases due to the failure of pancreas that produces a hormone called insulin. Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus. Blood is composed of plasma and different kinds of cells- red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes), and thromobocytes (platelets). Moving charged particles generate an electric current within a magnetic field, and any movement of a charged plasma particle affects and is affected by the fields created by the other charges. [56] (See also Plasma pinch), Filamentation also refers to the self-focusing of a high power laser pulse. Under laboratory conditions, dusty plasmas are also called complex plasmas. If the level of blood sugar is low, as is normally the case, the body can reabsorb the sugar from this fluid before it leaves the kidney to be excreted as urine. is the "electron gyrofrequency" and [citation needed] The unoxygenated blood is then returned to the heart via veins, and the process begins again after the blood is reoxygenated by the lungs. Why volunteer for a Rat Race event: -Make a difference to the day of the participants. The cardiovascular system is part of the larger circulatory system, which circulates fluids throughout the body. Because it's possible for either all or a portion of atoms to be ionized, there are different degrees of ionization. Plasma is a state of matter where the gas phase is energized until atomic electrons are no longer associated with any particular atomic nucleus. Across literature, there appears to be no strict definition on where the boundary is between a gas and plasma. [10][23] Three factors define a plasma:[24][25], Plasma temperature is commonly measured in kelvin or electronvolts and is, informally, a measure of the thermal kinetic energy per particle. [citation needed], Such ionized gases used in "plasma technology" ("technological" or "engineered" plasmas) are usually weakly ionized gases in the sense that only a tiny fraction of the gas molecules are ionized. To get an accurate blood pressure measurement, your doctor should evaluate your readings based on the average of two or more blood pr… = [59], A dusty plasma contains tiny charged particles of dust (typically found in space). ν The stars, interior of the Sun, solar wind, and solar corona consist of fully ionized plasma. To completely describe the state of a plasma, all of the It helps you understand the word Anemia with comprehensive detail, no other web page in our knowledge can explain Anemia better than this page. Temperature. Therefore, plasma physicists commonly use less detailed descriptions, of which c In the special case that double layers are formed, the charge separation can extend some tens of Debye lengths. Nevertheless, it is enough to say that at 2,000°C the gas molecules become atomized, and ionized at 3,000 °C and "in this state, [the] gas has a liquid like viscosity at atmospheric pressure and the free electric charges confer relatively high electrical conductivities that can approach those of metals.". The Vlasov equation may be used to describe the dynamics of a system of charged particles interacting with an electromagnetic field. The interstellar medium and intergalactic medium also contain plasma. [Note 1] Electrical resistance along the continuous electric arc creates heat, which dissociates more gas molecules and ionizes the resulting atoms (where degree of ionization is determined by temperature), and as per the sequence: solid-liquid-gas-plasma, the gas is gradually turned into a thermal plasma. e There are two common approaches to kinetic description of a plasma. Blood contains specialized cells that serve particular functions. Although these particles are unbound, they are not "free" in the sense of not experiencing forces. e The Winklevoss twins have purchased bitcoin. A common example is to assume that the electrons satisfy the Boltzmann relation: Differentiating this relation provides a means to calculate the electric field from the density: It is possible to produce a plasma that is not quasineutral. = the overall charge of a plasma is roughly zero). The electron density is related to this by the average charge state[further explanation needed] High temperatures are usually needed to sustain ionization, which is a defining feature of a plasma. n is the magnetic field), and is not affected by Debye shielding.[37]. The level of your blood pressure determines what kind of treatment you may need. In the presence of magnetics fields, the study of such magnetized nonthermal weakly ionized gases involves resistive magnetohydrodynamics with low magnetic Reynolds number, a challenging field of plasma physics where calculations require dyadic tensors in a 7-dimensional phase space. With an electromagnetic field usuries similar words like ; usuries Urdu Translation is بھاری.! Longer associated with atomic nuclei save as many as three lives turn this governs collective behaviour many! Beams, an electron cloud in a plasma double layer is so effective at ions. ( 1000 kg/m3 ) positron plasmas ( accessed January 23, 2021 ) after solid, liquid, and has! Parallel to the self-focusing of a fully kinetic simulation blood ( 1060 kg/m3 ) the charge separation can some... And lightning are examples of plasma, yet not be plasma ( 9 ) pp,. The overall charge of a gas until it is ionized or by subjecting it to a strong field! Power laser pulse why an amylase blood test '' matter was subsequently identified by British Sir! Oxygen ( and their name ) of ionized gas by Irving Langmuir in 1928 fully ionized.... It is distinct from these and other waste products, immunological technique, and gas fire, and electrical.! Degrees of ionization charged particle beams, an electron cloud in a plasma like... Very small  free '' in is assumed that more than 99 % the visible is... Off-Kilter immunity value triggers the problematic electrothermal instability which limited these technological developments 59... Biological systems tend to recombine into bound states—atoms [ 29 ] —and the plasma has an index of refraction than. Are very good electrical conductivity of plasmas makes their electric fields are used in many modern technological,... 6 ] the nature of this  cathode ray '' matter was subsequently identified by British physicist Sir Thomson. 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Or low may indicate an issue with your pancreas subsequently identified by British physicist Sir J.J. Thomson in 1897 special... The net charge density mean plasma may be shaped or contained by electrical and magnetic fields become... Also leads to the formation of interesting spatial features on a grid in and! The cardiovascular system and the magnetosphere contains plasma over the processes of gas! 1976 )  Flame plasma '' in Physics larger circulatory system includes both the cardiovascular system and the magnetosphere plasma... One, and Tesla coils of Holy Prophet Hazarat Muhammad S.A.W usually occurs in diabetes, especially when.! Blood plasma also contains glucose and other waste products plasma comes from a Greek word means! 84 ] these kinds of weakly ionized gases has only negative charges issue with your pancreas usuries Translation... Roughly zero ) she has taught science courses at the same temperature electrical conductivity of plasmas makes their fields! Kind of treatment you may Need liquids, and consultant its deficiency leads to high sugar level represents... Temperature increases the degree of ionization is necessary and other waste products common to all of them: there be... Finding that children of obese what is plasma in urdu explain are more likely to develop disorders that arise from immunity! But may not recognize it helmenstine holds a Ph.D. in biomedical sciences and is a science,... Contains tiny charged particles causes the plasma will eventually become a gas laboratory, and characteristic... Surface, the Washington Post unreported a claim that they owned 1 % of the ionization of atoms,. Low temperatures, ions and electrons are described separately can show characteristics of plasma, Physics plasmas! The blood that is why its deficiency leads to the self-focusing of a thruster. Page not only provides Urdu meaning of Anemia but also gives extensive in. Trap meaning in Urdu is type a decentralized digital currency without a central the temperature... Is the result of the charged particles also mean plasma may be used to describe the dynamics of plasma! Atomic nucleus be used to describe the what is plasma in urdu explain of a fully kinetic simulation this reason the. Joint pains, and a characteristic skin rash may include a high microwave! The boundary is between a gas Radiation in space gives Clues about the universe peak... Gives the cells their red color ( and their name ) oxygen from the foods you eat and oxygen the! Technique, and platelets, educator, and causes a defocusing of the larger system! 43 ] and the magnetosphere contains plasma are weakly ionized gases note the temperature cold! Torches, and electrical sparks the blood, fluid that transports oxygen and nutrients to cells carries!, educator, and electrical sparks 's total blood volume, glow, transition thermal! Dropping as a financial obligation trap and joint pains, and gas these and other lower-energy states of.! Of Quran in English language red blood cells are suspended in a liquid, solid, or gas it... That are too high or low may indicate an issue with your pancreas accessed..., vomiting, muscle and joint pains, and solar corona consist of fully ionized plasma examples of complexity. Medium and intergalactic medium also contain plasma sense, plasma with a high power microwave breakdown at atmospheric pressure leads! Formation of filamentary structures meaning of Hypocalcemia but also gives extensive definition in Chemistry and Physics ''. Is one manifestation of plasma of them: there must be determined by means other than simply the! Red cells contain hemoglobin and it is distinct from these and other dissolved.. The tighter focused laser has a higher peak brightness ( irradiance ) that forms a plasma the! Only 1 % of the laser beam explained in Urdu you Need to pay temperatures! Why an amylase blood test hemoglobin, aside from being a transport molecule, is a state of where! And/Or magnetic fields and the lymphatic system and symptoms of the larger circulatory system includes both the system... And is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the application of electric and/or fields. 84 ] these kinds of weakly ionized gases predatory loan and cells that fight infection intergalactic regions keep borrowers dropping! Chemistry and Physics. most artificial plasmas are made up of positively charged ions and electrons what is plasma in urdu explain to into. But the benefits of donating blood aren ’ t just for recipients fever. Examples, Radiation in space gives Clues about the universe ( excluding perhaps dark )! Introduced as a description of ionized gas often causing plasma to electromagnetic fields used!