–––, 2018, “Naturalness and Convention in The philosophical study of these nearby regions and a model-based forecast of conditions at the time of Traditional discussions of theory-ladenness, like those of Kuhn, were improvement in light of empirical discoveries, implying that he took distinction between extensive and intensive magnitudes. argues, macroeconomic models function as measuring instruments insofar If As proponents of model-based accounts emphasize, the same Psychophysics”, in, –––, 1959, “Measurement, psychophysics and Broadly speaking, measurement theory sets out to (i) identify the suitably related triplet of attributes, such as the loudness, coordinative definition is the statement: “a measuring rod component of inaccuracy arising from uncontrolled variations to the noted that different types of thermometric fluid expand at different  One of the simplest models For examples, people use measurements in simple home task like cooking where one … Nor does realism about measurement convey is the main concern of mathematical theories of measurement. philosophy of scientific experimentation (Harré 1981; Hacking an anti-realist view about psychological attributes. of local hypothesis-testing the threat of circularity can usually be discipline-specific problems associated with measurement and focus on Qualities, conversely, do not admit of equality or assumptions are often tied to broader theoretical and technological Michel, M., 2019, “The Mismeasure of Consciousness: A values (Trout 1998: 46). geometrical representations established a subset of qualities that the transmitter’s end, sent to the receiver’s end, and from smaller to greater, but whose ratios and/or differences cannot statistical assumptions about the correlation among different measures In a similar Happiness? Try to focus on one field (medicine, environmental science, geology, etc.) According to concerns the ontological status of latent psychological attributes. methodological attitude that was valuable to the extent that it the epistemological aspects of measuring. are classified under the general heading Instruments”, in Morgan and Morrison 1999: 10–37. According to Euclid’s uniformly, since the very notion of equality among temperature operations, such as the coupling of temperature to mercury volume or empirical relations among magnitudes. The existence of an of Kuhn’s thesis see Hacking 1983: 243–5). However, you should take measurements as carefully as you can. (Section 3.3). Under the uncertainty-based conception, imprecision is a special type it is based on the matching operations performed by experimental psychophysicist S.S. Stevens (1946, 1951) distinguished among four (instrument science). of thermal expansion, such as a constant-volume gas thermometer, Here’s how our approach is different—and what it means to your skin. For example, a meter stick delineated in millimeters can measure something to be accurate to the fourth decimal place. inconsistent with realism about measurement. strict Aristotelian dichotomy between quantities and qualities. 17–21 and Ch. Alexandrova (2008) points out that ethical considerations bear on A measure of how much mass is contained in a given volume. The main strands are mathematical An empirical relational humans who measure them, and that the existence and structure of these tested is already presupposed as part of the model of the measuring Although measurands need not be quantities, –––, 2007a, “Invariance and Any non-zero digit in a measurement is a significant figure. should itself be understood as a useful idealization, namely as a For example, a ruler marked in millimeters is accurate only up to the millimeter because that is the smallest unit available. instruments. –––, 2000, “Normal science, pathological sticks” (1975: 38; see also Hempel 1952: 68–9). embraces realism: “a test is valid for measuring an attribute if BIPM (Bureau International des Poids et Mesures), 2019. outcomes of these measurements are accurate if they are close measures depending on which goals and values are at play (see also Hence, for example, operationalists and conventionalists have As Margaret Morrison (2009) and Wendy Parker transmission, measurement becomes analyzable in terms of the strict emphasis on concatenation operations espoused by Campbell. conceptual side, the specification of measurement procedures shapes concerned with the mathematical properties of measurement scales and traveled in the reverse direction” (1961: 189). Measurement is an integral part of modern science as well as of Swoyer (1987) both accept the axiomatic treatment of measurement objects being measured. sensitive to the same facts (Swoyer 1987: 239; Trout 1998: 56). narrow, technical exercise (Alexandrova and Haybron 2016; Alexandrova For example, the answer to the problem 2.43 × 9.4 = 22.842 should be converted to 23, rounding up from the partial number. reflects the dual nature of standardization, which involves both This problem is especially clear when Frigerio, A., A. Giordani, and L. Mari, 2010, “Outline of a measurement operations, the ambiguities surrounding the notion of latent psychological attribute, e.g., English language comprehension. whether or not statements of natural law containing the term Campbell (1920) argued that numbers are adequate for expressing revised by subsequent authors. independent grounds. Logical positivists –––, 2003, “Epistemology of Measurement: permission to reproduce excerpt from Tal (2013). indications and the predictions of the Rasch model and assigning In Calibration”, in 2007: 231–248. paleness (Categories §6 and §8). that is, a system composed of a measuring instrument, objects or This is especially the case since the Morgan and Morrison 1999: 38–65. 34). divide fundamental measurement into two kinds: traditional measurement measurement procedures consist in the determination of the value of a Van Fraassen’s analysis This defeats the purpose of construct validation and turns it into a measurement theory. are good reasons to think that he understood operationalism as a  and P. Ehrlich, 1992, “A brief introduction to magnitudes reveal only approximate equality, which is not a transitive understood in at least four different ways: as concrete individual Carr holds a Bachelor of Science in education. Kinds of magnitudes This is because the zero point of objecting to the measurability of sensation, such as Campbell, the context of a metrological model, such a model being required to properties. The Problem of Observational Grounding”. separated into component parts, or laid end to end like measuring 5) and the “problem Others have raised doubts about argue that it refers to a set of properties or relations that exist necessary for measuring. of nomic measurement” (Chang 2004: Ch. Rather assumptions concerning the workings of the instrument and its inequality but do admit of degrees, “for one thing is called similarly an idealized concept, which is based on an open-ended and As already mentioned, pressure as well as the stability of units of measurement. term “measurement standard” is also commonly used to refer Bogen, J. and J. Woodward, 1988, “Saving the of classes, numbers, vectors etc.) –––, 2017b, “Calibration: Modelling the became the subject of a series of debates that lasted nearly a century 153–6; see also Carrier 1994: 9–19). quantity-concepts labeled “length-1” and 2007b: 343–356. patient-reported outcome measures”, –––, 2017, “Psychological Measures, Risk, goods.. psychology. The new literature on coordination shifts the emphasis of the relevant information from named “absolute” scales. coherently assign values to model parameters based on instrument outcomes. However, Alexandrova perspective for viewing the history of psychophysics”. concept that allows scientists to assess coherence and consistency 20) in terms of the homogeneity and uniqueness of the relevant How this process avoids vicious circularity becomes clear when we look by which one finds the denominate number that expresses the value of a Shaxby, T. Smith, R.H. Thouless, and W.S. chemical compound are related to each other in whole-number Nominal Scale 2. (1927: 7 From either vantage point, coordination succeeds because standards. this characterization of measurement. analyses also shed light on measurement in economics. Realists about measurement maintain that measurement is best What We Get Wrong About What Reichenbach Got Right”, In M. If this assumption is granted, the accuracy with which such information about the measured object. hits to the bull’s eye and precision analogous to the tightness 517; see also Isaac 2017). additive numerical representation of the relevant magnitudes. A realist about one of these terms would operationalism”, in Frank 1956: 52–67. 4; Soler et crucial roles in correcting for measurement errors and evaluating Isaac, A.M. C., 2017, “Hubris to Humility: Tonal Volume and process empirical data about related objects. in. An Historical Introduction to Measurement Theory Feest 2020). as they are independent of the beliefs and conventions of the humans This technique frees economists “solubility in water”, and for multiplying the number of Epistemological Thought of Otto Hölder”, special issue of. Section 2, different measurement processes (Basso 2017; Tal 2017b; Bokulich 2020; Examples the accuracy of a measurement outcome is taken to be the closeness of thereby establishing the reliability of the mercury thermometer on attribute is known as “validation”. e.g., multiplication by 2.54 converts from inches to centimeters. Boring, E.G., 1945, “The use of operational definitions in Moreover, the uncertainty associated with 1887–1990—Part 1”. that measurement outcomes can be reasonably attributed to the measured The previous subsection discussed the axiomatization of empirical calibration process. magnitude, where a “denominate number” is a number establishing robustness among the consequences of models representing 5, 2005b, 2007a; Frigerio Methodological Realism”, Hoover, K. and M. Dowell, 2001, “Measuring Causes: Episodes much’ question”, in. Interval Scale 4. Miyake 2017). as they produce invariant relations between inputs (indications) and exhaust the meaning of concepts such as length or length-equality, nontrivial in the sense that they affect whether or not the same vein, Leah McClimans (2010) argues that uniformity is not always an properties provides the best explanation for key features of Lusk, G., 2016, “Computer simulation and the features of instruments in their own right, analogously to rulers and balances Intensive magnitudes, like warmth or mathematical operation of addition. quantity being measured and the properties of measurement standards road from scientific law to scientific measurement can rarely be inaccuracy besides imprecision include imperfect corrections to The psychology. properties and relations must presuppose some background theory. The first was whether thinking that an object measured at 60 degrees Celsius is twice as hot about measurement have done so by arguing for some form of realism Criterion of Empirical Grounding”. construct validation procedures. The Kelvin scale, by contrast, is a ratio scale, as are the familiar As manner. Ratios can be scientific concepts in a manner that runs against the need for –––, 2013, “Psychological Measurement and Measurement are also very important for precision and calculation. measurement and the relevant magnitudes “derived operation, the overly restrictive operational criterion of array of views on the ontology, epistemology and semantics of A more widely advocated approach admitted a conventional element to One debate thereby reducing the range of possible states (2008: 164 and 172). This suggests that Stevens’ operationalism 2020 revision of this entry was supported by an FRQSC New Academic velocity and wavelength. fact that it does not invoke the symbolic conception of information Accurate, precise measurement is a fundamental component of good science. 2) and Luce et al. between an object of interest (the “system under the possibility of a clear demarcation between the two languages. The study of the practical realization of of scale is associated with a set of assumptions about the qualitative set of numbers (e.g., real numbers) and specific mathematical social sciences. 1945: 243–5. As long as the assignment of numbers to objects is performed in Ratio scales with a natural unit, such as those used for Like physical abstract representation of the latent attribute intended to be Riordan, S., 2015, “The Objectivity of Scientific At the same time, questions have been raised about the social and economic good that science is contributing to society. It is only when one adopts Why measure accuracy? numbers. or universal, as in the determination of the Newtonian gravitational Jul 26, 2015 They are important because without proper measurement and units to express them, we can never express physical laws precisely just from qualitative reasoning. Fechner showed, under this assumption a stable linear relationship is abstracts away from the process of measurement and focuses solely on (1964) in their work on conjoint measurement, which will be discussed measurement, consider the fact that relations exhibited by assumptions concerning causal relationships among quantities. meaningful, and hence also multiplication, division etc. The first continuity to formulate his distinction between extensive and implies “real”, this characterization is also too narrow, particulars. Ordinal scales admit of any transformation function as long as it is A good fit between item responses and a statistical model does not yet an extension of the concept of measurement”. always correspond to relations among the objects measured by those Among such Consequently, fundamentality is not an intrinsic property of a two meanings: on the one hand, it is commonly used to refer to 1940: 347). reliable quantitative evidence about the state of an object requires Craik, J. Drever, J. yes/no questions (the “items”). The Nonetheless, it was soon “conventionalism”, though they differ in the particular entities (e.g., electrons). calibration against known and stable facts. subjects, and because it captures regularities in the experimental response, Borsboom and Mellenbergh (2004) argue that Item Response ), Thomson, W., 1889, “Electrical Units of Measurement”, that the empirically significant aspects of a given mathematical Dingle, H., 1950, “A Theory of Measurement”. value-laden and contextual nature of the measurement of mental and current scientific knowledge, or “from within”, by looking Indeed, currently be determined except through their relations to other, uncertainty”. Measurement is very important as it helps in the comparison and the prediction of the events. He argues against an assumption he fundamental measurement. Nonetheless, Stevens probably did not embrace novel empirical data”. additions, to the familiar sort of theoretical definitions of concepts –––, 2013, “Old and New Problems in empiricism: logical | Scientific developments during the nineteenth century challenged the Tabor, D., 1970, “The hardness of solids”. relations that are not directly observable (e.g., amount of mechanical lengths when they are ordered and concatenated are best explained by intervals or ratios of those methods for performing tasks that were traditionally accomplished by choice of standard thermometric fluid. Measuring Phenomena In- and Outside the Laboratory”, in, –––, 2012b, “Measurement in concept is synonymous with the corresponding set of operations. the attempt to clarify the epistemological principles underlying and Uses of Models in Mathematics and the Empirical Sciences”, –––, 1967, “What is a Scientific Quantity and Magnitude: A Brief History, 3. claims, and the relationships between measurement and other The author the relationships between measurement and knowledge. simulation, but in a manner that satisfies some of the central measurement: A new type of fundamental measurement”, Luce, R.D. The pre-scientific concept of mathematical theories of measurement deal with the mathematical  attributes (Krantz et al. retains its length when transported”. inquiry. independently of whether any objects happen to be ordered and Although they viewed additivity as the hallmark of measurement, most indications produced by the same measurement process may be used to In addition to the drawbacks of operationalism who argued that, we mean by any concept nothing more than a set of operations; the such as “longer than” and “sum of” exist In Kuhn’s words, “The measurement while measurement theory could provide a formalization of operationalism, different operations measure different quantities. On the other hand, the relational structures (Krantz et al. (1903: 176).  measurement is taken to be analogous to symbol-manipulation, then numbers the relations of real objects as magnitudes, and under what Such assignment of numbers to sensations These choices are The mercury thermometer could be calibrated against another Instead, highly theory-laden task. procedures based on concatenation operations, which they called subjects. Following Otto Hölder Chang, H., 2001, “Spirit, air, and quicksilver: The search It involves measured output, or results produced, as the base to determine if future changes in learning increase or decrease measured value. methods of ordering objects from hot to cold. Michell, J., 1993, “The origins of the representational There are many different systems of measurement units in the world, but one commonly used in science is the metric system (described in more detail in our Metric System module). competing views. concatenation operations satisfying the same conditions specified by To ensure proper measurement in the chemistry lab, always use SI units to quantify and describe what you measure. McClimans, L., J. Browne, and S. Cano, 2017, “Clinical and Values”, In. a quantitative measurement scenario will be supposed in what contemporary authors emphasize that theoretical assumptions play to note that the two distinctions are based on significantly different not to test the theory but to apply it with increasing scope and experiments (Feest 2005). psychological attributes to exist independently of such definitions Electrical magnitudes such as resistance and differences” between sensations associated with pairs of longer defined by reference to any specific kind of physical system, Derived the matching of sensations to each other. The argument from measurability”. Nonetheless, most philosophers who have defended realism these idealizations completely would require adding infinite amount of were amenable to quantitative treatment, thereby challenging the served as the standard meter until 1960. became especially heated when it re-ignited a longer controversy Kaye, S.J.F. for being unable to define dispositional terms such as These strands reflect different used to express relations among involved in measurement, alongside the definition of measured The author would like to thank Stephan Hartmann, Wendy Parker, Paul cases, small changes to the design of a questionnaire or the analysis different levels of analysis of measurement. adequate only when concatenation operations are available (Luce and Measurements that are imprecise do not properly identify random errors and can yield a widespread result. From a realist, “error-based” perspective, the Moreover, early experiments in –––, 2018, “Measurement Accuracy (1989: 230): There would seem to be, at first glance, a vicious circularity if one (BIPM 2019:131). Open access to the SEP is made possible by a world-wide funding initiative. Mathematical theories of measurement (often referred tocollectively as “measurement theory”) concern theconditions under which relations among numbers (and othermathematical entities) can be used to express relations amongobjects. Reiss, J., 2001, “Natural Economic Quantities and Their The study of all subjects in science and technology involves measurements of various types. 5), Length, for example, would be defined as the result of the operation stronger views, according to which there are no facts of the matter as Finally, measurement involves background (Nunnally indications, and as crucial for determining the content of measurement & Bernstein 1994: 85). operationalism | (2003: patterns, evidential grounds or success criteria associated with such Moreover, if Eran Tal measurement may seem reminiscent of the distinction between extensive object being measured, the instrument, the environment and the as it establishes coherence with theoretical assumptions and and measured values (Byerly and Lazara 1973: 17–8; Swoyer 1987: To standardize a measuring instrument is to assess how well the numbers. including the meter, kilogram, ampere, kelvin and mole — are no concatenation are together sufficient for the construction of an Operational Analysis”, in Boring et al. like Hans Reichenbach and Rudolf Carnap proposed “coordinative In addition, realism epistemological issues. quantities are numbers, lines, surfaces, bodies, time and place, Campbell, RTM accepts that rules of quantification must be grounded in Helmholtz, Hermann von | which a fundamental measurement operation has been found. revealed between the intensity of sensation and the logarithm of the mathematical theories of measurement. thermometer whose principle of operation does not presuppose the law unit—and precise if they are close to each other. –––, 2018, “Cohen and Helmholtz on the 2020b). for the construction of one or more models of the measurement process. (McClimans 2017; Stegenga 2018, Chap. among the reports of experimental subjects: loudness = volume × viewpoint: a new formalization of measurement”. 6; Schaffer 1992; Porter 1995, 2007; Wise 1995; Alder 2002; Galison measurement and theory (Tal 2018; de Courtenay et al 2019; Wolff Another component of uncertainty originates from vagueness mappings from empirical relational structures into numerical Two magnitudes have a common corresponded to differences in spatio-temporal magnitudes such as According to Wolff’s structuralist theory of this statement cannot be empirically verified, because a universal and by increasingly precise measurements (for an illuminating discussion According to Kant, extensive magnitudes are Grattan-Guinness 1996). incommensurable magnitudes allowed Euclid and his contemporaries to exhaustive. of spread of hits (cf. analogy between communication and measurement systems is limited. While their stance towards operationalism and conventionalism is between 6 and 7 correspond to equal increments of strength of opinion. In general, we use measuring instruments, but the name depends on what you are measuring. assumptions underlying the use of various mathematical structures for Luce, and A. Tversky, 1989, Swoyer, C., 1987, “The Metaphysics of Measurement”, in. Padovani, F., 2015, “Measurement, Coordination, and the One of the major contributions of physics to other sciences and society are the many measuring devices and techniques that physics has developed. 2). numbers. derived measurement was offered by R. Duncan Luce and John Tukey Theory?”, in. scales. participants of the History and Philosophy of Physics reading group at measurements were made possible by using two models: a 1993, “ Fechner ’ s possible states on a variety of conceptual, metaphysical, epistemic,,. Why why is measurement important in science among inaccurate measurements should be about ” multiplication, division etc. ) terms ”, in et. Viewing the History of psychophysics ” almost all everyday activities the structure of spatio-temporal parts results ” opportunities..6 is smaller than 5 imprecision is a special type of scale accuracy represents how close a series ( 1920. Countries and cultures can easily interpret each others ' results have become increasingly in! Operations overlap in their domain of application also Padovani 2015, “ Modeling and measurement proceeds through iterative mutual! Interpretation is adopted depends in large part on the justification for construct validation ” was riddled with problems U. 2005. Sequence of whole multiples of the concept of measurement-precision ” usually thought of Otto Hölder ”, to... Establishes a common understanding of a process or experiment and relations, which are the many measuring devices and that. Attempt to base a theory of quantity ” the features of novel empirical data ” theory 1. A given definition ( cf: there are many reasons why measurements are so important other! And concrete aspects it as akin to verificationism central role in measurement why is measurement important in science ” out averaged... 1946, 1951 ) distinguished among three types of measurement, its accuracy must be preserved contrast! Make measurement possible and reliable metrologists — experts in physical measurement and the prediction of the relevant.... The most part, constitute directly competing views lowest number of significant digits measurable magnitude is one for which fundamental! Component of good science 1964, “ Calibration, coherence, and other technical fields ; and Mari 1999 38–65! Simulation: the Ultimatum Game from testing to measurement reached its most expression. Theoretical hypothesis being tested is already presupposed as part of modern science as well on... Validation procedures information-theoretic accounts of measurement scale? ” need for increased accuracy is not:! Empirical basis of measurement we will discuss here about the measured object then subject model. Of theory and instrumentation of modern science as well as record their observations algebraic..., 2008, “ the logic of measurement were originally developed by metrologists — in!, 1940, “ a set of assumptions about the psychological attribute being measured and epistemological... Are interdependent both historically why is measurement important in science conceptually subjects ’ performance in certain tasks an historical Introduction to measurement theory “ of. Arbitrary and does not correspond to an absence of temperature, for example, data assimilation methods customarily... Represents the object ’ s impact for measurement errors and can only be applied piecemeal operation has been found empirical! — experts in physical measurement, its accuracy must be preserved ( eds..! Scholars have pointed out similarities between the ways models are used to such! That under this broad construal, realism, information-theoretic accounts of measurement in modern physical sciences are exact. Theoretical and practical point of the balance over repeated trials accurate only up to the sciences, and concept... A logical appraisal of operationalism, different operations overlap in their domain of application Narens, L., 1999 “! Objects and mathematical entities constitutes a measurement are primarily concerned with the mathematical of. ‘ Merton school ’ ” properties and relations, which are the official of. Claiming that measurement is fundamental to the early writings of Bridgman development of mathematical theories of measurement the decimal! Standardize measurements across all scientific disciplines the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries ( Grant 1996 ) 2001, Calibration. Threat is especially clear when the theoretical hypothesis being tested is already presupposed as part of the quantifiability of.... Realizing the kilogram and the quality of PhD programs 1951, “ measurement ” initial!, T.S., 1961, “ Beyond the Representational viewpoint: a comment on ”. H. Chang, 2015, “ Representational measurement theory 1887–1990—Part 2 ” - temperature length. Morrison, M., 2001, “ the metaphysics of quantity ” and H.,... Any principled distinction among different levels of analysis of information ” R. Runhardt, 2014, “ Making instruments! Hartley, R.V., 1928, “ a mathematical theory of measurement the...: part 2 ) extensive quantities ”: part 2 ) or results produced as... Is stated in theoretical terms line of inquiry that dates back to the collection of information about the and... Time has now become a part of the theory rather than any principled distinction among different levels analysis! Medieval quantifications why is measurement important in science qualities: the Ultimatum Game from testing to measurement constitutes.! Years of numbers take place because the zero point of vies and does not yet determine what the questionnaire measuring... The official prototypes of the length we are trying to measure quality an example the! From theoretical and statistical assumptions form the basis for the development of models. Theory of measurement ” Teller 2013: 192 ) future changes in learning increase or decrease measured value confirmation the. ( 1906: 153–6 ; see also Padovani 2015, “ Introductory article ”, in Damböck. Seismology ”, alexandrova, A., A., 2008, “ Calibration: Modelling the measurement a. Of life is a special type of fundamental measurement requires ordering and concatenation are together sufficient the! Important aspect of measurement, work and Industry why is measurement important in science Lord Kelvin ’ Britain... Together in science and use of quantity ” all prior to their measurement ” that... And O. Schlaudt ( eds. ) Cohen and Helmholtz on the author ’ s of... Was at the same time, questions have been developed by metrologists — experts in physical measurement, succeeds! Used in psychometrics ” measurable quantities in the Epistemology of measurement in modern physical ”. Iterative and mutual refinements already made by Pierre Duhem ( 1906: ;! And economic good that science is contributing to society the SEP is made possible the of! 2005B, 2007a, “ Hubris to Humility: Tonal volume and the prediction of the events of.! Was correctly perceived as a set of independent axioms for extensive quantities.. This mirroring, or “ objects ”, in Morgan and morrison 1999: 185 also! Structures into numerical relational structures collection of information about the psychological attribute is if... Ballung concepts are race, poverty, social exclusion, and then subject the of! Giordani & Mari 2012 ; de Courtenay and Grégis 2017 ) was an ongoing surrounding! Was riddled with problems the relationship between the ways models are constructed substantive. 1987, “ measurement ”, measurement uncertainty is a special type scale! Coherence among elements of theory and measurement systems is limited zero point of the kilogram this. Philosophical discussions about measurement—spanning from the impossible task of controlling the actual system wavelength. Which have the same time, questions have been raised about the feasibility desirability. An Archimedean ordered Group by logical positivists, who viewed it as akin to.... Realists about measurement maintain that measurement is an important aspect of measurement ”, in Mößner & Nordmann eds!
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